Cover page.



  • Introduction: The Divinity of Inside and Outside
  • Innards
  • Entrails: Learning, Feeling, Dividing
  • Heart, Liver, Phrenes, Inner Liquid
  • Spirit, Soul and Mind
  • Metaphor and "Anatomical Details"
  • Concreteness of the Innards: Poroi and Presocratics
  • Insight into Disunity
  • Disease and Divination: Knowing the Causes of Pain
  • External and Internal Forces of Disease
  • Channels to the Soul: the Vulnerability of Sight and Hearing
  • Inner Movement: Source of Knowledge, Sign of Pain
  • Black Prophetic Innards
  • Discourse of Darkness
  • The Flux of Feeling
  • Death, Sleep, Dreams – and Underground Rivers
  • Flow and Storm
  • Breaths of Passion
  • Inner World, Underworld, and Gendered Images of "Mind"
  • Mind, Earth, Womb, Hades
  • Inner Impurities and Emissions: "Good" turned "Bad"
  • The Mainly Female "Mind"
  • The Zoology and Daemonology of Emotion
  • Daemonic Weather, Wind, Fire
  • Goads Whips, Pursuit
  • Biting, Eating
  • Oistros, Poison, Snakes, Dogs
  • The Mobile Adversary One cannot Fight
  • The Aerial Terrorist
  • These Inner Wounds are Real
  • The Alterntive: Growth Within
  • Animal, Daimon: Bringers of Death and Definition
  • Non-human: What We Defend Ourselves Against
  • Animal Weaponry
  • Using Animal is Using Daimon
  • Non-human Definition of the Human
  • Gods' Weapons
  • Personifications
  • States of Mind: Multiple, Daemonic, Female
  • Blood in the Mind
  • Ate, Lyssa: Madness Personified
  • Epic Erinyes
  • Tragic Erinyes: Damage "from the Ground"
  • Blood, Murder, Madness
  • Erinyes Seen
  • The Most Polluted Day
  • Erinyes UnseenM
  • Where the Terrible is Good
  • Works Cited
  • Index

Page 171

Tragedy explores damage within bonded relationships, worked out by Erinys - the "Fury", the daemon of the lasting reality of remembered hurt; of self's self-destructive awareness of other's anger.

"Anger and Erinys belong together." Aeschylus's Erinyes say, "We are called Arai [Curses] in the House of Earth"

The damage and relationships vary. Aeschylus's Eteocles insulted his father, whose Erinys is now inescapable. The chorus hopes the "Erinys of the house" will leave when gods are propitiated. Eteocles knows better: his father's curse made the daimon of the house "boil". This damage was not murder. Fifty years after Aeschylus wrote that, spectators of Sophocles’s Oedipus at Colonus will see this curse at Thebes replayed: Oedipus calls on Erinyes as he faces Eteocles, and renews the curse.

Sophocles's Electra says her mother Clytemnestra, after murdered her husband, lived with her accursed lover, "fearing no Erinys". Electra summons Erinyes "who look on when people die unjustly and when beds are secretly dishonoured," implying that Erinys monitors the marriage bond as well as murder. But in Aeschylus, dead Clytemnestra stirs Erinys against the son who murdered her: here they are "Erinyes of the mother;" they did not persecute her for murdering her husband.

Erinyes express a perception of the world in which conflicting relationships are at work in the self. Erinyes may punish you for punishing an act which other Erinyes, invoked in a different context and relationship, might themselves have punished. The Erinyes invoked by Clytemnestra concentrate on her injury exclusively.

Erinyes are as variable, in fact, as relationships and the damage that can be done in them, within a complex life webbed with relationships. They work punitively in the inner world, that is, in the mind of a person who has hurt someone else. But they are activated by the external inner world, which means the underworld.

An Erinys-sense of underworld, and underground anger, suited the fifth- century theater's consciousness of its own underground. The fifth-century stage had an underground channel through which an actor playing a ghost, for example, might crawl and rise up on the stage. Unseen underground space where the dead lie in resentment made itself felt in tragic language as well as tragic stagecraft. It was a truth both of the stage and of relationships in tragic families, cities or communities, that something disturbing might rise "from below"at any moment.

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